Professor Ray Bull

Position: Professor of Criminal Investigation (part-time, one day per week)

College: College of Law, Humanities and Social Sciences

Department: Law, Criminology and Social Sciences

Subject area: Criminology

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  • In 2010 I received from the Scientific Committee of the Fourth International Conference on Investigative Interviewing a “Special Prize” for my “extensive contributions to investigative interviewing”
  • In 2009 I received from the 'International Investigative Interviewing Research Group' the “Senior Academic Award” for my “significant lifetime contribution to the field of investigative interviewing”
  • In 2008 I received from the European Association of Psychology and Law an “Award for Life-time Contribution to Psychology and Law”
  • In 2008 I received from the British Psychological Society the “Award for Distinguished Contributions to Academic Knowledge in Forensic Psychology”
  • In 2005 I received a Commendation from the London Metropolitan Police for “Innovation and professionalism whilst assisting a complex rape investigation”.

Teaching responsibilities

MSc in Criminal Investigation and PhD supervision

Professional interests

Investigative interviewing; the detection of deception.

Research interests

Investigative interviewing; the detection of deception.

Membership of professional bodies

  • Honorary Fellow of the British Psychological Society
  • Honorary Life-time Member of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group
  • Fellow of the Association of Psychological Sciences
  • President of the European Association of Psychology and Law.


Undergraduate qualifications

  • BSc University of Exeter

Postgraduate qualifications

  • MSc 1973 University of Exeter

Research qualifications

  • DSc 1995 University of Portsmouth

Recent publications

• 231. Tudor-Owen, j., Scott, A., Henry, P., & BULL, R. (2016). An exploratory study of the planning and interviewing practices of police recruits in Western Australia. Forensic Update, 20, 20 – 25.

• 230. Milne, R., & BULL, R. (In press). Witness interviews and crime investigation. In D. Groome & M. Eysenck (Eds.) An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Oxon: Routledge.

• 229. Areh, I., Walsh, D., & BULL, R. (In press). Police interrogation practice in Slovenia. Psychology, Crime & Law.

• 228. Snook, B., Brooks, D., & BULL, R. (In press). A lesson on interrogations from detainees: predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation. Criminal Justice and Behavior.

• 227. Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P. B., & BULL, R. (In press). The Enhanced Cognitive Interview: Expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy. Psychology, Crime and Law.

• 226. BULL, R. (2015). The impact of personal expectations and biases in preparing expert testimony. In R. Sternberg and S. Tufts Fiske (Eds.) Ethical principles, case studies, and commentaries for the behavioral and brain sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

• 225. Davies, G., BULL, R., & Milne, R. (In press). Analysing and improving the testimony of vulnerable witnesses interviewed under the ‘Achieving best evidence’ protocol. In P. Radcliffe, A. Heaton-Armstrong, G. Gudjonsson, and D. Wolchover (Eds.) Witness testimony in sexual cases. Investigation, law and procedure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

• 224. Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P. B., & BULL, R. (In press). Entrevista de Crianças e Adolescentes em Contexto Policial e Forense: Uma Perspectiva do Desenvolvimento [Investigative interviewing of children and adolescents: A developmental perspective.]. Psicologia, Reflexão e Crítica, 28, 425-433.

• 223. Walsh, D., & BULL, R. (2015). The association between interview skills, questioning and evidence disclosure strategies, and interview outcomes. Psychology, Crime and Law, 21, 661- 680.

• 222. Walsh, D., BULL, R., & Milne, R. (In press). One way or another? Criminal investigators’ beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.

• 221. Burrell, A., BULL, R., Bond, J., & Herrington, G. (2015). Testing the impact of group offending on behavioural similarity in serial robbery. Psychology, Crime and Law, 21, 551-569.

• 220. Clancy, D., & BULL, R. (2015). The effect on mock juror decision making of power of speech within eyewitness testimony and types of scientific evidence. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22, 425-435.

• 219. Dando, C., BULL, R., Ormerod, T., & Sandham, A. (2015). Helping to sort the liars from the truth-tellers: The gradual revelation of information during investigative interviews. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 20, 114-128.

• 218. McDougall, A., & BULL, R. (2015). Detecting truth in suspect interviews: The effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements. Psychology, Crime and Law, 21, 514-530.

• 217. Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P., & BULL, R. (2015). The Enhanced Cognitive Interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity, and estimate relation with rapport quality. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

• 216. Scott, A., Tudor-Owen, J., Pedretti, P., & BULL, R. (2015). How Intuitive is PEACE? Newly Recruited Police Officers' Plans, Interviews and Self-Evaluations. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22, 355-367.

• 215. Sleath E., & BULL, R. (2015). Comparing rape myth acceptance: Differences between psychology students, law students, and police officers. Violence and Victims, 30, 136-147.

• 214. BULL, R. (2014). When in interviews to disclose information to suspects and to challenge them? In R. Bull (Ed.) Investigative interviewing. New York: Springer.

• 213. Chan, S., & BULL, R. (2014). The effect of co-offender planning on verbal deception. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 21, 457-464.

• 212. Smith, L. and BULL, R. (2014). Validation of the factor structure and predictive validity of the Forensic Evidence Evaluation Bias Scale for robbery and sexual assault trial scenarios. Psychology, Crime and Law, 20, 450-466.

• 211. Smith, L., & BULL, R. (2014). Exploring the disclosure of forensic evidence in police interviews with suspects. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 29, 81-86.

• 210. Wilcock, R., & BULL, R. (2014). Improving the performance of older witnesses on identification procedures. In M. Toglia, D. Ross, J. Pozzulo, and E. Pica (Eds.) The elderly eyewitness in court. New York: Psychology Press.

• 209. BULL, R. (2013). What is ‘believed’ or actually ‘known’ about characteristics that may contribute to being a good/effective interviewer? Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice, 5, 128-143.

• 208. Horry, R., Halford, P., Brewer, N., Milne, R., & BULL, R. (2013). Archival analyses of eyewitness identification test outcomes: What can they tell us about eyewitness memory? Law and Human Behavior, 38, 94-108.

• 207. Lingwood, J., & BULL, R. (2013). Interviewing young adolescent suspects: When to reveal incriminating information? The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 5, 141-146.

• 206. Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P., & BULL, R. (2013). The Enhanced Cognitive Interview: Towards a better use and understanding of this procedure. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 15, 190–199.

• 205. Walsh, D., and BULL, R. (2013). The investigation and investigative interviewing of benefit fraud suspects in the UK: Historical and contemporary perspectives. In B. Cooper, D. Griesel, and M. Ternes (Eds.) Applied issues in investigative interviewing, eyewitness memory, and credibility assessment.New York: Springer.

• 204. Burrell, A., BULL, R., & Bond, J. (2012). Linking personal robbery offences using offender behaviour. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 9, 201-222.

• 203. Davies, K., Tonkin, M., BULL, R., & Bond, J. (2012). 'The course of case linkage never did run smooth: A new investigation to tackle the behavioural changes in serial car theft'. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 9, 274-295.

• 202. Holliday, R., Humphries, J., Milne, R., Memon, A., Houlder, L., Lyons, A., & BULL, R. (2012). Reducing misinformation effects in older witnesses with Cognitive Interview mnemonics. Psychology & Aging, 27, 1191-1203.

• 201. Hunt, L., and BULL, R. (2012). Differentiating genuine and false rape allegations. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 19, 682-691.

• 200. Smith, L. and BULL, R. (2012). Identifying and measuring juror pre-trial bias for forensic evidence: Development and validation of the Forensic Evidence Evaluation Bias Scale. Psychology, Crime and Law, 18, 797-815.

• 199. Tonkin, M., BULL, R., and Santtila, P. (2012). The linking of burglary crimes using offender behavior: Testing research cross-nationally and exploring methodology. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17, 276-293.

• 198. Tonkin, M., Woodhams, J., BULL, R., & Bond, J. (2012). Behavioural case linkage with solved and unsolved crimes. Forensic Science International, 222, 146-153.

• 197. Tonkin, M., Woodhams, J., BULL, R., Bond, J., & Santtila, P. (2012). A comparison of logistic regression and classification tree analysis for behavioural case linkage. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 9, 235-258

• 196. Sleath, E., and BULL, R., (2012). Comparing rape victim and perpetrator blaming in a police officer sample: Difference between specially trained and non-trained officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 642-661.

• 195. Walsh, D., and BULL, R. (2012). Examining rapport in investigative interviews with suspects: Does its building and maintenance work? Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 27, 73-84.

• 194. Walsh, D., and BULL, R. (2012). How do interviewers attempt to overcome suspects’ denials? Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 19, 151-168.

• 193. Woodhams, J., Hollin, C., BULL, R. and Cooke, C. (2012). Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 18, 415-452.

Experience in industry

  • University of Leicester: 2004-2012 Professor of Forensic Psychology
  • University of Portsmouth: 1990-2004 Professor of Psychology

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